In an alien language, surprisingly they also use english lowercase letters, but possibly in a different order. The order of the alphabet is some permutation of lowercase letters.

Given a string, find the longest palindromic substring. We going to iterate each character in the string; and within that character, we expand and look for the longest palindrome. As we keep iterating, we only keep the longest palindrome.

Every minute, any fresh orange that is adjacent (4-directionally) to a rotten orange becomes rotten.
Return the minimum number of minutes that must elapse until no cell has a fresh orange. If this is impossible, return -1 instead.

Given two integers L and R, find the count of numbers in the range [L, R] (inclusive) having a prime number of set bits in their binary representation.
(Recall that the number of set bits an integer has is the number of 1s present when written in binary.

Given a non-empty special binary tree consisting of nodes with the non-negative value, where each node in this tree has exactly two or zero sub-node. If the node has two sub-nodes, then this node's value is the smaller value among its two sub-nodes.

On an infinite plane, a robot initially stands at (0, 0) and faces north. The robot can receive one of three instructions:
"G": go straight 1 unit;
"L": turn 90 degrees to the left;
"R": turn 90 degress to the right.
The robot performs the instructions given in order, and repeats them forever.

You're given a matrix represented by a two-dimensional array, and two positive integers r and c representing the row number and column number of the wanted reshaped matrix, respectively.

In a list of songs, the i-th song has a duration of time[i] seconds.
Return the number of pairs of songs for which their total duration in seconds is divisible by 60. Formally, we want the number of indices i < j with (time[i] + time[j]) % 60 == 0.

Given a string S of lowercase letters, a duplicate removal consists of choosing two adjacent and equal letters, and removing them.
We repeatedly make duplicate removals on S until we no longer can.

A valid parentheses string is either empty (""), "(" + A + ")", or A + B, where A and B are valid parentheses strings, and + represents string concatenation. For example, "", "()", "(())()", and "(()(()))" are all valid parentheses strings.

Write an efficient algorithm that searches for a value in an m x n matrix. This matrix has the following properties: Integers in each row are sorted from left to right. The first integer of each row is greater than the last integer of the previous row.

Given an array of n positive integers and a positive integer s, find the minimal length of a contiguous subarray of which the sum ≥ s. If there isn't one, return 0 instead.

Given a matrix of M x N elements (M rows, N columns), return all elements of the matrix in diagonal order as shown in the below image.

Given a string containing just the characters '(', ')', '{', '}', '[' and ']', determine if the input string is valid.

Given an unsorted integer array, find the smallest missing positive integer.